This heading covers all artifacts made by humans, from stone age axes to genetic engineering: machinery, chemicals, piping, computers, pumps, tractors, fertilisers, herbicides, insecticides and so on.   The common factor is that a human first thought of the thing (human creativity), and then manipulated some form of resource to create something different—the tool.

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There is no point in dividing the forms of technology into different headings as they all have to pass through the same testing against the holisticgoal anyway.  On this basis it doesn’t really matter if, for instance, genetic engineering is classed as ‘technology’ or ‘living organisms’ as the testing process is the same!  

The first tool modern people resort to
Technology is very often the first tool that people resort to when faced with a problem, no matter what the origin of the problem is.  For example, an infestation of weeds is usually addressed by the technology tool of spraying, or by mechanical treatment.

In Australia there are large areas of salinity, as shown in this photo.

The real issue—the root cause of the problem—is usually the removal of deep rooted vegetation over vast areas of landscape, and replacing it with shall rooted annual crops such as wheat.  During the growing or wet season the plants have little root system, and during the non-growing season there is often no soil cover at all for months.

However, some people want to continue carrying out what they have always done, and resort to expensive trenching and contouring before considering what other tools might be used other than expensive machinery.  The problem was not caused by a shortage of expensive machinery, so perhaps there is a place for deeper thinking!!
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